Tampu tocco, Machu Picchu and mysteries of inca cities

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Part III: Machu Picchu and Tampu-tocco: the same city?

Relevance of the writings of Fernando Montesinos

This research refers a lot to the writings of Montesinos who often bad reputation. Fernando Montesinos was a Spanish chronicler and clergyman who was put in touch with wise Queshua which he used memories. Found in the writings of Montesinos answers about the past of the Inca dynasty and they would come. I considered this information as including a part of reality far greater than that accepted by archaeologists today. Accept the account of Montesinos calls into question the assumption that the Incas were originally from the Lake Titicaca and Bolivia, and that come from doing the Inca the Amazon.

But we now have new information on the architectural style characteristic of the Incas and their way of building cities. The largest number of citizenship identified to date with this architecture lies in the Sacred Valley which lies north of Cusco. Furthermore, structures with a method similar planning can be found at Pachacamac and Pisco, although further north. Inca cities built along the lines so clean the Incas seem to be at the North.

In another concurring in the writings of Fernando Montesinos, Amautas the fight against the enemies coming in South and East and take refuge in Tampu Tocco, leaving Cuzco. And when the Spanish conquest, the Inca retreat into the north, in the Sacred Valley of the Incas, and then Vitcos Vilcabamba. It is consistent in both cases the pension of the same people, it is carried towards its origin, which would be north. The history of mankind shows that people know when an expansion of the war and he meets a sudden loss of territory, he moved back to its origin. Napoleon against the Russians did not go to Turkey, the Romans are not parties to a destination other than Italy. This for the simple reason that, in difficult times, the officers could not find safety in the midst of a people conquered by him, but he would seek to remain in a territory where people are loyal. This may explain the ease encountered by conquistadors from the South. This part was recently conquered by the Incas, it was a people already captured. An invader rather than another should not pose a huge problem and they did not initially fought to protect the Inca territory. By cons killings and a desire to satisfy the Incas to the Catholic religion has probably been a motivating factor to rebel then. If the dynasty before the Incas came from the Puno region, it is likely that they had chosen to go in that direction to find men to fight again. The fact also call the city of Cuzco as well ( "navel") may be a willingness to understand that the Emperor Cuzco is a legitimate government in the provinces which lie around in the four cardinal directions. A clever idea to easily satisfy peoples south of the city. The area around Cuzco would be a historical border between several major nations, the Waris north and south Tiwanakus. By cons power located in Cuzco could have changed hands between these different peoples at different times, as suggested by the writings of Montesinos. This may explain why the art from south and Tihuanakus is present in Cuzco at a time before the first Inca.

Montesinos and Catholics references

Montesinos's writings are often questioned as they relate to the Inca a supposed grand son of Noah. However, it is a natural reflection from a Catholic believer when it interprets the Incan legend that speaks of a flood and its survivors. A Catholic believer will have faith in his religion and is therefore considered that there was a deluge, and the only survivor was Noah and his family. By meeting people who have a legend as close to what Noah, though he thinks that the god of this people is not the "true" god, he will explain the legend or historical event using a fact he considers truthful existence to a time of a flood on the earth. And historically, it can flood this place well before the birth of Christ and the first king of the dynasty supposedly preceded the Incas, it combines a little distant son of Noah.

The disappearance of writing among the Incas

Building on the writings of Montesinos, where descendants of the Incas Amautas, would explain that the word Amautas was the name of Wise Inca to Inca times. This fits perfectly with messages stating that the Amautas emperor, Pachacuti VII, when he reigned Tampu Tocco, established a university called "House of Idolatry." Accepting the relevance of the writings of Montesinos leads us to believe that the ancestors of the Incas knew the writing and that a decision of Pachacuti VII, the use of writing was banned and replaced by Quipus. The lack of will to bring this to the Catholic religion suggests that Montesinos does write that the Indians of the time he repeated. Involve the disappearance of writing a decision of an emperor to prohibit its use may be executed and that itself creates a university to learn to read Quipus seems to be an extremely rational and show no signs related to religious belief or legend. This information can then be taken very seriously. Besides writing the word exists in the vocabulary Queshua, suggesting its past existence.

The origin of dynasties before the Incas by Montesinos
In addition, the names given to Emperor Amautas cited by Montesinos are in agreement with those of the Inca dynasty. Among the list of names, some researchers have identified three dynasties, dynasties Piru, Amautas and Tampu-tocco. If the ancestors of the Incas actually come North, one wonders if Piru has no connection with the city of Piura on the border between Ecuador and Peru.

I think the work of Montesinos was harvested as much information without verifying them. It was crazy assertions by referencing the beliefs of Catholics believe that absolute truth with some legends. Indeed, if God created man, the Incas are also creatures of God and history necessarily cut at one point, the sacred scriptures.

The falcon, symbolic form?

The association of falcons with the form of Machu Picchu is far more likely. The shape of the city may therefore make sense or not. If it is symbolic, there may be several possible hypotheses:
- An Inca emperor decided to build a city based on the falcon or in honor of the bird, sacred to the Inca culture.
- The hawk is a representation of Inti, the falcon of Manco Capac and the citadel would be Tampu Tocco.
- The hawk is a bird sacred but during the reign amautas and Citadel would be a citadel Amautas probably Tampu Tocco.

Machu Picchu is a great city whose importance is clear, both by its location and quality construction that we find. It is likely that the actual name of the city was known at the time of the invasion. But the only important city, whose name was known but never really identified, is Tampu Tocco. The words of the time by which Tampu Tocco would Paccari Tampu could be a decoy to prevent the Spaniards to hand over city and what it might hide. On the other hand, knowledge of the existence and location of Tampu-tocco seems to have been reserved for a small portion of the population, which would ease the lie.

In addition, the enemies of Amautas came, according to Montesinos, east and south. Now Paccari Tampu lies southeast of Cuzco, which means that Tampu Tocco was in the realms of enemies and Cuzco, the city where they lost control and they wanted to return 500 years later. Considering the position of Paccar Tampu and its easy access, it is certain that this is impossible. Tampu-tocco must be in the region north and northwest of Cuzco.

Many archaeologists and historians have in the past assumed that Machu Picchu might be Tampu tocco, Hiram Bingham first. In addition to the importance of the city, another point that supports their hypothesis is the presence of the church with three windows joined the story that Manco cappac ordered the construction of a building with 3 windows Tampu Tocco.

The design of the city is fully in keeping with Tampu tocco. Indeed, the falcon Inti gave, according to legend, his aura to Manco Capac (Fig 1), which seems he has left the town of Tocco Tampu when the city had reached its limits. Maybe the limits are from just the fact that amautas did not want to see the shape of the city not to deteriorate in its design. It can be done to reach the end of construction that prompted cappac from Manco to Cuzco. It is also surprising that the "Inca Trail" is the road from this city to go to Cuzco, and in the drawing, the eye of the hawk is oriented to this journey.

If fact, Machu Picchu is Tampu Tocco, what additional information can be found in the texts to better understand Machu Picchu.

Part IV: Tampu tocco, what you might think to find.

Tampu-Tocco was the capital of amautas, ancestors of the Incas. This prosperous civilization declined by about the year 800 after a defeat and death of their emperor Pachacuti VI (7). They then took refuge for nearly 500 years in their citadel Tampu tocco. In the twelfth or thirteenth century, they returned to Cuzco and founded the Inca empire.

(7) Explorations in the Highlands of Peru, Hiram Bingham, 1923

The University of idolatry

Tampu Tocco was a capital amautas, probably a fortress before the death of Pachacuti VI. Then the followers of the late king built a city near Tampu Tocco integration which, in the reign of Pachacuti VII a University of Idolatry. Amautas The word was also used to designate the name of sages and philosophers Inca at the time of the Spanish conquest. They are therefore left to live and teach in Cuzco, leaving the old city amautas, partly explaining the abandonment of Machu Picchu. According to the writings of Christoval de Molina, the Incas were afraid to return to Tampu Tocco for failing to abide therein as Ayar Cachi, a brother of the legendary Ayar trapped in a cave.

The statue of Ayar Uchu

From the legend of Ayar (8), we could also find a disturbing comparison between the fate of Ayar Uchu, turned into stone after returning to Earth with its wings, and the temple of the condor to Machu Picchu (9). Betanzos said qu'Ayar Uchu remain on the hill like a hero who should be revered by the rest of the group. The sculpture would she Ayar Uchu with its wings and not a condor? Or is it the tombstone near the house of the guardian or the huge rock near the entrance of the city visible in Figure 2? The legends are vague and sometimes have several versions.

(8) Color available at ttp: / / www.americas-fr.com/civilisations/legendes/ayar.html
(9) Handbook of Inca Mythology, Paul Richard Steele, 2004, ABC CLIOP 177/178

The temple of the sun which became the model for that of Cuzco

If Machu Picchu is Tampu Tocco, the temple of the sun in it is older than Cuzco and, as suggested by Hiram Bingham, the latter could be inspired. The Sun Temple in Cuzco and Tampu Tocco both have a circular wall, built in rare among Incas.

The mountain Huanacauri

One can see an uncanny resemblance between Machu Picchu and the Inca celebration seems to have been initiated under Pachacutec to raise the status of young warrior, taking place in November (10).
Young people having been whipped the crowd and the Inca, were with their family in the hill Raurana. They spent the night down the hill in a place called Huaman-cancha (instead of falcon). At sunrise they went to the top of the hill, where the Inca reward those who have become warriors. Huaca The Raurana consists of two hawks (or eagles and falcons) stone placed on an altar atop the hill. Again we find the hawk but a hill, below, a place to sleep on a name also associated with falcons, and Summit important place. We can make the connection with Machu Picchu and the terrace-shaped eye. The ceremony introduced by Pachacutec was inspired by a ceremony that could have happened to the original Tampu Tocco / Machu Picchu. The buildings south of the agricultural terraces, near the entrance of the current site could be dormitories. This ceremony seems to be taking place on the hill Huanacauri described in other texts. It includes the presence of Inca boys who sleep in this place in memory of the path taken by Manco Capac to arrive in Cuzco and the two idols in the form of an eagle and falcon. But Huanacauri is according to some legends the name of the father and therefore Ayar Manco Capac, but also the name of a mountain located Tampu tocco At the top of the buildings allowed to be saved from the great flood. Does Huanacauri is the original name of Huayna Picchu, Machu Picchu and then the residence of the father of Manco Capac? Machu Picchu Or is it a place called Huanacauri where the brother Ayar Uchu was turned into stone and became the place where the Incas grew young men? Then Tampu Tocco would be farther north.

(10) Fábulas Ritos y de los Incas, Cristobal de Molina, 1570-1584

The building with 3 windows of Manco Capac

If Machu Picchu is Tampu tocco, then we can deduce that the building with three windows of Manco cappac is located in the city. However the building with three windows built Manco cappac may not be the temple of three windows, but the keeper's house (Fig. 3). The latter also has three windows and overlooks the valley and the city atop a hill (Montesinos spoke of the hill to the windows talking Tampu Tocco), which would explain the presence of the keeper's house. It is also likely that buildings such as granaries (or dorms) and the keeper's house were built outside the city amautas for people not descended from amautas did not enter the grounds of the ancient citadel. If the keeper's house is the building assigned to Manco Capac, then I think the building with three windows at the top of Huayna Picchu, seen in Figure 4, is the house that served as a reference to the construction House of the Guardian. This building could it then be the inn at the windows?

The city and the rocks

Legend Ayar contains many references to rock (rock turned into characters, characters from the rock ...) Out of Machu Picchu has many rocks "sacred." We counted eight easy: the Intihuatana, sculpture of the temple of the condor, the rock tomb near the keeper's house, the rock under the temple of the sun, the sacred rock on the end of the main square, the temple Moon, the rock in the temple with three windows, the rock snakes, the rocks in Figure 2, now almost ignored in the descriptions and maps of Machu Picchu, but that seems important, from its position indicated by gaze direction of the bird. The legend of the Ayar brothers, the technique of the Incas and the presence of large stones of worship around the Machu Picchu might be linked.

The citadel amautas Parents

If the current plan of Machu Picchu is an enlargement of the citadel amautas origin, the latter seems to consist of group of three doors and adjacent buildings (Fig. 5), surrounded by high fortification wall (Fig. 6) and has many areas where the watch could post a soldier.
This area of the city has many indications of a different character from the rest of the city. The whole is surrounded by a wall of substantial height, continuous, with little open, no windows at eye level and each opening seems to have a guard (Fig. 7). In addition the group has several levels of elevation centered on the group of three doors. Originally, according to this hypothesis, the group of three gates were to be the palace amautas. In this area Hiram Bingham discovered the greatest number of pottery. It concluded that the area had to have been inhabited for long periods. When it identifies Tampu-Tocco to Machu Picchu, it also makes the assumption that the oldest are the city of origin. The error of Hiram Bingham is stopping at this point and not have inferred that all buildings in this area should cover all functions needed for the life of a city. We must find housing amautas heads, those of noble religious neighborhoods, places of storage ... It can enlighten us on what was to call at the time amautas, the pattern of a major city. The study of this area, separated from other buildings at Machu Picchu, can provide indications on the function of buildings that comprise it.

Macchu Picchu, a crocodile and a snake.

All of this research was initiated by the discovery of the shape of a bird to Machu Picchu. However, the theory that it is the former Tampu tocco and the lower part of the city corresponds to the original citadel amautas mean, if given a form to the city was important that this part corresponds also to an animal. But theories and previous observations have identified the shape of this particular part of the city to an alligator. But the design shown is seen from the keeper's house, contradicting my hypothesis that the builders would have logically used the summit of Huayna Picchu to draw the shape. So I wanted to see what, according to my method, we could see from the Huana Picchu. In a less obvious that the shape of a bird, I still saw an alligator (Fig. 8), turned tail and along the body, head area is still the highest form. One element, however, seems to confirm the form: a large rock located on the upper terrace seems indicated the position of the eye. This area deserves to be released because once again, the eye does not seem important now and there seems to be so amazing, the openings cut in the rock shaped eyes.

If Machu Picchu consisted of several areas or cite the source, like Pisac, then it is likely that another area that was located upstream and including the Intihuatana. Applying the rule of observation it identifies the head as the raised zone is located on the Intihuatana, and there is also a terrace with a unique shape and that seems like the eye, and a suite stones connected by mini-terraces down the hill can be identified with a snake hook. Thus this area is shaped like a snake (Fig. 8). Strangely, a rock in this area is called by Hiram Bingham the Rock for snakes because of a snake carved on the rock. This may be a reminder of the shape of the sector. In addition, the end of the snake appears to be in the deck, explaining the lines of separation between the graphical agricultural terraces in this area.

Montesinos told the Amautas after the death of Pachacuti VI, they returned to Tocco Tampu to bury their emperor but also to build a new city. It is possible that the sector-shaped Cayman is the first finished the previous death of Pachacuti VI, in the form of the second snake, built by survivors Amautas who build the city around the tomb of Pachacuti VI, located in The Temple of the Sun and then, under the leadership of Manco Capac and shortly before his reign, the general shape of a bird has been defined, adding terraces to the main existing forms to reach the bird.

The form on the ruins of Huayna Picchu also deserves to be analyzed, but unfortunately I do not have enough visual material.

The eye of inti & Head of caiman

Looking Machu Picchu, its construction plan, we note that access is concentrated at a point close to the keeper's house. In addition, the main staircase which is located outside the city walls and those crossing the terraces seem to allow farmers to go to the terrace-shaped eyes without using the finest neighborhoods. The eye seems to be a meeting place for all classes of the population, unlike areas to the interior walls. It is a place whose importance seems underestimated and function completely ignored.

Consider Machu Picchu as Tampu tocco can provide many answers about the site, cons, for a city with crossing over 500 years of history, it is strange not to have recovered more bodies and graves. The association Tampu tocco / Macchu Picchu allowed us to ask many assumptions about the history and choice of construction of Machu Picchu. The check is in large part possible. This involves checking if the city has been built in this order: Part Cayman Part Snake, Part Bird. I think that ruins located at the top of Huayna Picchu date from the time of the Cayman or an earlier date. It would then discover, in the grounds of walls or carved stones, shapes of birds, snakes and alligators. The excavation of the terrace-shaped eye of the bird and the shape of the eye Cayman can perhaps make an interesting contribution. Part Cayman could have several layers of construction, especially the upper part. In addition, it appears that the head part is important and that the head of the Cayman is an area whose function is completely ignored. But the Inca built this upper terrace overlooking the area of building and can distinguish the stairs that allow access. Another interesting observation, a stone wall which gives the area behind a building has an imperfection. As if the stone had been moved or added later (Fig. 9). This may be access to an area beneath the head of the Cayman. This area should be excavated and studied as a priority.

Today, the excavations conducted by the Peruvian teams focus on the inner city. In view of the form highlighted, it appears important to limit access to tourists from the terrace-shaped eyes that I named "Eye of inti. It is then important to make excavations on the terrace which could be rich in discoveries. It should also examine more closely the cubic structure which is bonded to the terrace. The discovery of the shape of the city opens up new avenues of research that could lead to confirmation of the identification of Tampu Tocco. But if Machu Picchu is not Tampu Tocco, then the city should look north of Cuzco. Vilcabamba seems to have been a remote and important to the civilization of which comes from the Incas. The city was chosen as the capital of what was to be the area were grouped as Indians faithful. Many ruins remain to be found in this region now extremely inaccessible.

<<Part II : Discovery of an architectural form

Fig. 1
Portrait de Manco Cappac, avec une représentation d'Inti.

fig. 2
Grande roche à l'entrée du Machu Pïcchu

fig. 3
Vue sur la maison du gardien

fig. 4
Vue sur le Huayna Picchu et la maison jumelle de la Maison du Gardien.

fig. 5
Forteresse Amautas d'origine : Le Caïman

fig. 6
Mur d'enceinte et fortification

fig. 7
Poste de guarde à l'entrée de la forteresse

fig. 8
Forme serpent et Caïman

fig. 9
Observations autour de la zone "Tête du Caïman"

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